Small Dog Training
Basic Dog Commands
5 Basic Dog Commands
Your Small Dog Should Know
The five basic dog commands that all small breed dogs should know include:
Can your dog do all of these? If not, don't despair, because this article will walk you through the steps so that your dog will master them in no time.
I am not a professional trainer but I have trained many dogs over the years, taking numerous dog obedience classes with my dogs and read countless books on training.
For a fact, I know these simple techniques work for most dogs. Puppies are easier, but older dogs can be taught new tricks.
I chose one of my dogs to train for this article and photographed his progress along the way. I just wanted to be sure that even "old dogs can learn new tricks."
Meet Toby, my brindle Shih Tzu. He is going to help demonstrate these commands.
What Equipment do You Need?
To teach these basic dog commands, you will need:
- Tiny tasty treats
- Clicker (optional)
- Dog Leash
A little background and Training Terms
These five simple commands can be
accomplished using a clicker training tool and tasty treats or simply using
your voice to “mark” the behavior.
“marking the behavior, I am referring to the particular
behavior you want to see, whether it is to sit, stay, come, down or
I use the word “yes” said in a
relatively enthusiastic voice to mark the behavior. Others find the clicker to work equally well.
Clicker-training using a metal clicker to make a sound that marks the behavior.
Clicker training is a nickname given to a positive reinforcement training system based marker training.
The psychology behind this approach
is to teach the dog what you expect him to do first and then pair a verbal
command such as sit or stay with his behavior.
It is a positive approach that rewards behaviors that
are desired or incremental steps towards the behavior
The click or a clicker
or the word, “Yes” is meant to mark the behavior. The dog will begin to associate
what he is doing with your click or verbal response and a food treat.
When I use the word ‘behavior,’ I’m
referring to the task you want to accomplish.
We’ll talk about five simple behaviors
you can teach your dog in this article:
Watch me or Look, Sit, Down, Stay, and Come in this article.
Tips for Teaching Basic Dog Commands
All of these commands will take time
and repeated practice. Do not expect to
sit down with a new puppy and accomplish all of them in the first 10 minutes of
- Short training periods are best for
very young puppies and then you can gradually increase the time you spend
training. Start with a five-minute
period and work up to 10 or even 15 minutes if you have your dog’s
- Pick a time when your dog is rested, and you are relaxed. Try to keep distractions to a minimum at
least at first.
- If you have a very distracted dog,
keep the sessions short. Always stop
before either of you gets frustrated or discouraged.
- The whole idea with positive training methods
is that training is fun and upbeat.
- Find a treat that your dog loves and
break it down into tiny, tiny pieces.
You don’t want to spend all your training time waiting for your dog to eat the treat.
- A trick most dog trainers will tell you is a must is a way to hold your training treats. Unless you plan to walk around with training treats in your hand, a little container or pouch is a must. These training treat containers are necessary so your hands are free and treats are readily available when there is a teachable moment. There are a variety of pouches to choose from and the one you chose must be personalized to your needs.
Here are a few dog treat pouches from which to choose.
Basic Dog Commands: How to Teach Your Dog "Watch Me"
Dog Command, "Watch"
The "Watch Me" or "Look" command is meant to get and keep your dog's attention.
You may keep your dog
on a leash. If you are in your home, you may not need a leash. Outside?
Use a leash.
For this behavior, your goal is to
get your dog’s attention in a positive manner.
You want your dog to look at you.
- Take a tasty treat and hold it up
towards your face.
- When the dog looks up
at you, click and reward or say, “Yes” and reward.
- Do this
several times until he understands that he gets a food reward when he looks
- Once he has made this connection,
hold the food treat up and say, “look” or “watch me.”
- Reward when he does this. Repeat this several times until he is
consistently looking at you.
- Next, say the word without showing
- Reward if your dog looks at you.
you’ll want to reward intermittently, meaning that at first, every “look” gets a food treat but gradually, not every
look will be rewarded.
It is best not to have a pattern such as
every 3rd look when you are teaching this basic dog command.
Basic Dog Commands: How to Teach Your Dog to "Sit"
Basic Dog Command, "Sit"
- Hold a treat at the end of your small dog's nose.
- Slowly move the treat up and over the head.
- When he sits, praise with a word such as Yes or click
(if you are using the clicker method.
- Give the dog the treat.
What to do if the Dog Jumps Up or Backs Away
When teaching the "sit" command, if the dog jumps up, lower the
If your dog backs up without
sitting, back him into a corner and wait
for him to sit. When he sits, mark
it with an enthusiastic “yes" or click your clicker and give the treat.
Once he sits, say the word, "sit" to teach him the association
with the word, the treat and his
You will need to do this
repeatedly over time until he consistently knows the word and the action.
Once your dog sits easily on your cue, start to reinforce (treat, click and
"yes" more intermittently. At first, every time the dog sits
you will want to reinforce, but slowly
skip one. Gradually, make your reinforcements even more random.
Basic Dog Commands: Teach Your Dog, "Down"
Basic Dog Command, "Down"
Once your little dog can sit, then it is time to teach him
how to lie down.
- Put the dog in a sit position.
- Hold a treat in front of his
nose and move slowly straight down towards the floor to where his front
paws are resting.
- If he follows the
treat all the way down, reward him with a click and treat or a “yes” and treat.
If the Dog Doesn't Go "Down"
If he doesn’t make it down onto the floor, start again but
move the treat more slowly.
treat for any downward movement such as his head is down or moving his paw forward.
You may need to do these intermediate steps
until he figures out how to get down completely on the ground.
The technical term for rewarding these “baby
steps” is called shaping or rewarding
small parts of behavior until you see
If you have no luck with this process, try it on a different
floor surface such as a small mat, carpet, or hard floor surface – whatever you
didn’t use in the beginning.
If Your Dog Stands instead of Going Down
- Does your dog stand as you move the treat down towards the
floor, put him back into a sitting position and begin to move the treat again
towards the floor, only this time do it even more slowly?
- If he continues to stand up, you can say
something like, “oops” which really means sorry, no treat for that.
- You may need to start again by repeating the same steps:
- Move the treat downward slowly towards the floor
- Click and reward
or say “Yes” and reward for every small step he makes until final
If these steps are not working, try this:
Sit on the floor with your knees raised. Have your little
dog sit next to you. Hold the treat in
one hand and place it under your knee to lure him under your leg.
may lie down to get under you knee and craw forward to get his
treat. If he does so, click and reward
or say “yes” and reward.
Training is a slow process for some dogs. Do not get discouraged.
If you find
yourself getting impatient or if the dog loses interest, stop the
activity. Begin again when everyone is
Basic Dog Commands: Teach Your Dog to "Stay"
Basic Dog Command, "Stay"
At first, we will make this basic dog command short and easy. As the dog gains experience, you can increase the time you expect the dog
- Start in a sit or down position.
- Put the treat in front of the
dog’s nose and keep it there.
- Click or say “yes” several times while he’s in position,
then release him with a word you choose such as OK, done, free, etc.
- Once your dog will stay in the original position for a short
period of time (seconds not hours), add the verbal cue, “stay.”
- Pause, repeat
the word, then click and reward.
- When you think, he is getting the idea, place the treat in
your other hand behind your back. Say, “Stay,” then reward.
- Gradually repeat this step increasing the
time that he should stay.
When your dog can stay for 15 to 20 seconds, add a
distraction such as moving your feet or arms, or shuffling your feet.
Don’t add too much too soon. This is a harder command that requires our
patience and your dog's concentration.
After he can stay for 15 to 20 seconds with your
distractions, start moving slowly away from him. Take a step back and then stop and return to
him and reward.
Always go back to him rather than calling him to
you. The come command will be covered
next, but it is not part of learning to stay.
Basic Dog Commands: Teach Your Dog to "Come"
Basic Dog Command, "Come"
Also called a reliable recall, this command is more difficult to learn
and may be even more tough for some breeds. It is also the most important command you can teach, and one that could save your dog's life one day.
Your ultimate goal is to say the word, "come," and your dog immediately stops and
comes to you without even thinking whether he’d
like to do so or not.
Caveat: Don't call your dog to you to punish, reprimand or do something that the dog finds unpleasant such as taking a pill or getting his ears cleaned.
This is a challenging command and may take more time to
master than the previous four behaviors.
- Place your dog on a 6 foot or longer leash. Hold the other end. You will use the dog’s name and the command,
- Start by assuring there is a small distance between you and your dog.
- Place a treat in your hands where he can
- Say his name and “come,” If he
comes toward you, mark the behavior with, “yes” or click and then reward. You may also want to pair getting the reward with you grabbing his collar or harness. (You don't want your dog to run away after he has successfully come)
- Repeat with your dog on a loose leash. Step back a couple of feet and call your dog again.
Mark and reward.
- Repeat, each time moving farther away.
Gently tug on the leash as you call his name and say the word come. If he gets up or makes some motion in your direction, reward.
Keep repeating this activity as long as your dog is interested, rewarding any "baby steps," or intermediate attempts to come.
Once the Dog Understands "Come,"
Once you think the dog understands this behavior, play the “coming game”
in your house.
Have a supply of treats on you and call out
your dog’s name and repeat, “come.”
Reward if he comes to you.
about your business and continue to ask the dog to come increasing the
between you and the dog.
you can call your dog to you successfully when you are in one room and
Ready for the Outdoor "Come"
Do not practice this command outdoors in an open area until
you are convinced the dog has a reliable recall.
A long training lead (10-12 feet) should be used when practicing this outdoors for safety reasons.
Continue to go through the same steps as above.
As you practice this skill, add even longer leads such as a 20-foot
lead to increase the distance between you and your dog.
Some trainers recommend that you give your dog 3 treats
every time he successfully comes when you call.
The rationale between this is that it takes about the same time to give
3 treats as it does to get your dog’s
leash back on or in the case of a small dog, to pick him up to safety if he gets loose and you must call him
I think that is a good idea, but if you are going to do this, you
must start training and rewarding with 3 treats each time.
Otherwise, your dog may not hang around long enough to get
the three treats and then dart out
Once your dog is consistently performing these five
basic dog commands, you will still want to practice periodically with and without
it’s time to move on to some more challenging
Training should be an ongoing
process throughout the dog’s life. It is
a good way to bond and deepen the relationship
over the years and a fun way for you to interact
with your dog.
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